[홈서버 구축기] SSL 인증서 만들기 (연습)

관련 용어 정리

  1. SSL (Secure Socket Layer): Netscape에서 개발하여 SSLv3까지 개발되고 이후로는 TLS로 계승된다.
  2. TLS (Transport Layer Security): SSL3.0의 업그레이드 버전으로 시작. 현재 TLS1.2가 최신이고 TLS1.3이 개발 중이다.
  3. HTTPS (HTTP + Secure)
  4. CSR (Certificate Signing Request): 인증 서명 요청. 인증서명요청 파일의 확장자로 쓰인다.
  5. CRT : Certificate (인증서)의 약자. 보통 인증서 파일의 확장자로 쓰인다.
  6. CA (Certificate Authority): 공인인증기관.
  7. PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) : 공개키 기반구조
  8. PKCS (Public Key Cryptography Standards) : 공개키 암호화 표준
  9. PKCS #12 : 암호화 관련 파일 포맷 정의. 인증서와 개인키가 함께 들어있다.
  10. X.509 : 공개키 기반 인증서 형식 표준
  11. PEM (Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail) : 인증서 형식의 하나 (Base64 Encoded DER certificate). 해당 형식 인증서의 확장자로 쓰인다.
  12. PFX (Personal inFormation eXchange) : PKCS#12 형식의 인증서 확장자로 쓰임
  13. P12 : PKCS#12 형식의 인증서 확장자로 쓰임

인증서를 만드는 방법에는 몇가지 있다.

  1. Self-signed 인증서
    • CSR 명시적 생성 -> 인증서에 self-sign -> 인증서 완성
    • CSR을 명시적으로 생성하지 않고, key와 부가정보들을 입력하여 직접 self-sign 하여 인증서 완성
  2. CSR (인증서 서명 요청)을 만들어 CA에 요청해서 발급받는 방법
    1. 유료
    2. 무료 (ex: Letsencrypt)

이 모두 공개키 기반 구조이므로 개인키부터 만들어서 진행해야한다.

순서는 아래와 같다.

  1. 개인키를 만든다.
    • 옵션으로 암호를 부여할 수도 있다. (대칭키 암호화 알고리즘 적용)
      • 암호가 들어있으면 서비스 구동시마다 암호를 물어봐서 암호를 제거하는게 편하다.
      • 생성시부터 암호를 안넣는 방법도 있고
      • 암호를 제거하는 방법도 있다. (아래 기술)
      • 암호가 없는 경우 key 파일의 보안에 더욱 신경써야함
    • 별도로 개인키와 쌍이 되는 공개키를 추출하는 방법도 있다. (아래 기술)
  2. CSR (인증서명요청. Certificate Signing Request)을 만든다.
    • CSR을 만들때 input으로 개인키를 넣는 방법도 있고,
    • CSR을 만들며 개인키도 함께 만드는 방법도 있다.
    • 참고로 CSR안에는 공개키가 들어있는데 공개키는 명시적으로 만들지 않고 CSR 만들며 자동으로 생성되어 CSR안에 들어간다.
  3. 인증서를 만든다.
    1. Self sign 으로 만드는 방법
      1. Input으로 CSR을 명시적으로 넣어 인증서를 생성하는 방법
      2. CSR을 넣지 않고 암묵적 이용으로 인증서를 생성하는 방법
    2. CA에 인증서를 보내 요청하는 방법

하나씩 연습을 해본다.

개인키 만드는 방법 (참고 man genrsa)

  – 암호없이 생성

   # openssl  genrsa  -out <키이름>   <비트 수>

ex) # openssl genrsa -out cert.key 2048

Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
............................+++
...........................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

  – 암호를 부여하여 생성 (대칭키 암호화 알고리즘 적용)

  # openssl  genrsa  -<암호화알고리즘>  -out <키이름>  <비트수>

ex) # openssl genrsa -aes256 -out cert.key 2048

Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...............................................................+++
................................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
Verifying - Enter pass phrase for cert.key:

 – 생성된 개인키를 보면 —-BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY— 로 시작한다.

 # cat cert.key

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
DEK-Info: AES-256-CBC,68BA14C1149922156FA75CB1C7A11861

+oCHeV0RjCtCwVn6ooYYcY996XytwUxUWYF7IKrttvSWoALwe3NavX9SXvXeXh8j
JfuzQz4i5cybUwY/ZnYs3qWNUpdX6NfPMpZhnsL4O5LOLX3jIS0rnp+y/fLhnWQw
nkt3ta+Jh//AFOeP8+XCmFjI7uuA6pgRVfxKkEbq2eopmt0/vpMTpYbH5E6/foGP
eo1nSzfV2/PePEQRD4FeeD9/6w7JAmLGMuPb8nFNyLlce8avah1MucV+7lwsiAMR
TOA7+wHwvK6SZjvue6sSKrVkezOK9TG3sa/aWIq+uaMRfpuHCtHi8rj1hvUFYhXd
.... <중간 생략> ....
VDVlh98CgYBvJnsnADhZRwB2sC72XM2kKojaGNxmt0xahuGhmmGoityTgesIHM3a
j9BUz+w6rH5BC1t3LLsKVDj1DZ/LYO0K9fanayjPZJGWUeg3YMKP3CQi5TvqN54O
k9pjSxY+llSr3j8kLxzrPrsEDRbMiiBGIuouLMMx6Yl/ElbGI0VxGw==
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

 – 생성된 개인키 정보 보기

ex) # openssl rsa -text -in cert.key

Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
Private-Key: (2048 bit)
modulus:
00:b7:48:7b:56:ee:6c:85:cc:84:de:07:51:39:b0:
35:72:79:fd:c9:02:37:79:79:21:94:3f:95:3e:1f:
b7:3a:ac:d2:c8:a2:08:b1:72:b3:d4:5b:9b:a6:f6:
f2:8e:08:fc:02:a7:e4:26:a9:90:1a:fc:c4:cd:53:
ae:7f:f7:3e:6b:d5:01:e0:14:e9:97:68:79:0d:8a:
61:1d:07:c2:2f:19:f0:8b:92:53:5d:8c:13:cd:ab:
50:43:56:21:85:66:4d:56:c4:6d:a3:c5:91:9a:9d:
db:66:a1:ea:a4:0f:4c:59:c9:7c:7d:06:bb:55:05:
42:0f:c8:03:bd:ec:5f:eb:af:ff:e4:a4:47:35:ca:
<이하 생략>

 – 개인키와 쌍이 되는 공개키 뽑아내기

# openssl  rsa  -in <개인키 파일>  -pubout  -out <공개키 파일>

ex) # openssl rsa -in cert.key -pubout -out cert_pub.key

Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
writing RSA key

 – 공개키 파일 내용 보기 (—-BEGIN PUBLIC KEY—- 로 시작)

ex) # cat cert_pub.key

-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAt0h7Vu5shcyE3gdRObA1
cnn9yQI3eXkhlD+VPh+3OqzSyKIIsXKz1Fubpvbyjgj8AqfkJqmQGvzEzVOuf/c+
a9UB4BTpl2h5DYphHQfCLxnwi5JTXYwTzatQQ1YhhWZNVsRto8WRmp3bZqHqpA9M
Wcl8fQa7VQVCD8gDvexf66//5KRHNco3hOlHEw4rZA5Xxz87Wn7Gdok/QJ9ng82s
OA3lr3FMusSpVLACr+PcGxL6g6pf+dsbws53UmKg4t+OPXMtC/1AjvvvirpW2fHc
CVsYwbP5uF0UDb3IlpTHOC3E9iYzGqZjSN8RSoemm+iUZJhmJYexS4p9iVBEJ2DG
CwIDAQAB
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

 – 비밀번호가 걸려있는 개인키에서 비밀번호 제거하기

 # openssl  rsa  -in  <개인키파일>  -out <새로저장할비번없는개인키파일>

ex) openssl  rsa  -in  cert.key  -out  cert_nopass.key
Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
writing RSA key

 – 비밀번호 없는 개인키에 비밀번호 부여하기

 # openssl  rsa  -in  <비번없는개인키파일>  -out <새로저장할비번있는개인키파일>   -<암호화방법>

ex) # openssl  rsa  -in  cert_nopass.key  -out cert_pass.key  -aes256
writing RSA key
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:

 

CSR 만드는 방법 (참고: man req)

  1. 위에서 만든 개인키를 입력으로 넣는 방법
    • #openssl  req  -new  -key <개인키>  -out <CSR 파일>
    • ex> # openssl req -new -key cert.key -out cert.csr
      Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
      You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
      into your certificate request.
      What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
      There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
      For some fields there will be a default value,
      If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
      -----
      Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:KR
      State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Seoul
      Locality Name (eg, city) []:Gangnam
      Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:hangadac.com
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
      Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:blog.hangadac.com
      Email Address []:myemail_address@gmail.comPlease enter the following 'extra' attributes
      to be sent with your certificate request
      A challenge password []:
      An optional company name []:
  2. 개인키도 함께 만드는 방법
    1. # openssl  req  -new  -out <CSR 파일>  -keyout <개인키 파일>  -newkey  rsa:<키 비트수>
    2. ex) # openssl req -new -out cert.csr -keyout cert.key -newkey rsa:2048
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key

      .........................................................................................................+++
      ..................................................................................................+++
      writing new private key to 'cert.key'
      Enter PEM pass phrase:
      Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
      -----
      You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
      into your certificate request.
      What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
      There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
      For some fields there will be a default value,
      If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
      -----
      Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:KR
      State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Seoul
      Locality Name (eg, city) []:Gangnam
      Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:hangadac.com
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
      Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:blog.hangadac.com
      Email Address []:myemail_address@gmail.comPlease enter the following 'extra' attributes
      to be sent with your certificate request
      A challenge password []:
      An optional company name []:
  3. 인증서 정보 보기
    1. # openssl  req  -text  -in <인증서 파일명>  -noout
    2. ex) # openssl req -text -in cert.csr -noout
      Certificate Request:
      Data:
      Version: 0 (0x0)
      Subject: C=KR, ST=Seoul, L=Gangnam, O=hangadac.com, CN=blog.hangadac.com/emailAddress=myemail-address@gmail.com
      Subject Public Key Info:
      Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
      Public-Key: (2048 bit)
      Modulus:
      00:af:5f:f7:ae:20:ee:4e:d0:61:d2:25:9b:dc:cf:
      b6:a0:24:98:93:5e:33:d4:ce:b0:e5:fd:5a:2c:7c:
      50:c6:dc:ae:5a:4c:bd:ff:11:88:71:73:d3:f1:04:
      0b:d2:b4:51:f1:2e:2f:12:88:46:9f:1c:47:2e:2a:
      33:cf:e2:9b:58:04:73:20:da:8b:16:a4:2a:ae:1f:
      20:e0:f2:ba:4e:c9:80:78:3f:14:3f:8b:fb:dd:a6:
      95:77:95:e0:2d:03:f4:89:2f:3d:2b:3c:9c:26:e6:
      1e:67:d9:66:b2:42:d0:c6:c3:f7:4f:60:b1:d2:86:
      0a:1c:90:b7:dd:fb:b3:ac:33:de:e1:db:d1:7d:49:
      47:30:4f:3a:d3:2f:d7:4b:50:d6:62:3d:6d:de:8f:
      92:14:87:7b:71:aa:00:d2:c4:21:79:3e:be:96:2b:
      d0:27:bd:cb:c1:8e:30:78:a2:75:a4:a8:52:7f:c8:
      ce:53:7e:1d:3d:18:1c:d7:d1:19:13:f2:3c:cd:f3:
      4b:cc:aa:81:41:f4:0c:a6:0f:82:60:e5:03:2a:d1:
      35:a4:ff:07:b8:2a:59:8f:0e:89:3a:a8:61:6d:fd:
      c8:b1:1d:7d:4d:f7:d3:b3:ee:30:10:c9:9f:bb:59:
      5c:6e:1f:5c:06:d0:1d:5d:d1:40:a4:b9:12:17:92:
      56:2b
      Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
      Attributes:
      a0:00
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
      3b:1c:8a:51:de:40:57:26:f9:1c:3f:44:e6:4e:30:f4:ea:5b:
      cb:a7:52:20:dc:9a:7f:84:6a:28:d8:a2:83:49:8e:3f:95:98:
      33:d1:7e:f1:23:6f:6a:67:ef:31:96:ce:d1:ef:74:7b:18:28:
      32:ee:6d:bc:a5:fc:07:ae:b9:b2:35:83:58:93:42:a2:db:71:
      9a:6a:5f:56:52:67:03:3e:96:b6:20:cd:14:a3:24:af:64:26:
      f7:08:d7:11:11:69:8a:64:c3:99:3b:00:c6:3e:57:65:0f:3d:
      8f:1f:b7:c2:cb:56:1d:45:9d:0c:aa:29:04:e6:ee:79:b5:c1:
      be:cd:4c:16:2e:56:fa:21:a2:59:41:c6:ca:0d:24:03:6f:87:
      fa:f5:87:42:bb:a4:17:e4:47:67:3e:ae:f2:a6:9e:7c:16:13:
      05:bb:4a:bc:2e:8f:4c:32:94:82:a9:19:02:29:08:9f:37:9c:
      40:20:27:b5:e6:3f:dd:32:22:09:15:1e:69:65:d4:1a:82:ae:
      5d:15:ea:7e:9f:9b:3a:43:32:a8:33:06:be:85:b8:13:26:3c:
      b6:9a:12:4e:3f:93:cc:b0:86:f8:e3:9d:0f:34:0f:07:73:ff:
      fa:af:4c:c6:15:01:c2:21:0c:ed:0b:2d:fe:c0:b0:4b:b7:dc:
      f3:6f:78:03

Self Signed 인증서 만드는 방법

  1. CSR을 명시적으로 넣어 인증서를 만드는 방법
    1. # openssl  x509  -req  -days <유효날수>  -in <인증사인요청파일>  -signkey <개인키>  -out <인증서 파일명>
    2. ex) # openssl  x509  -req  -days 365  -in cert.csr  -signkey cert.key  -out cert.crt
      Signature ok
      subject=/C=KR/ST=Seoul/L=Gangnam/O=hangadac.com/CN=blog.hangadac.com/emailAddress=myemail-address@gmail.com
      Getting Private key
      Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
  2. CSR을 넣지 않고 (암묵적으로 CSR을 생성/이용하여) 인증서를 만드는 방법
    1. # openssl req  -new  -x509  -days <유효날수>  -key <개인키>  -out <인증서파일명>
    2. ex) # openssl  req  -new  -x509  -days 365  -key cert.key  -out  cert.crt
      Enter pass phrase for cert.key:
      You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
      into your certificate request.
      What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
      There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
      For some fields there will be a default value,
      If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
      -----
      Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:KR
      State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Seoul
      Locality Name (eg, city) []:Gangnam
      Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:hangadac.com
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
      Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:blog.hangadac.com
      Email Address []:myemail_address@gmail.com
  3. 인증서 파일 내용 보기
    1. # cat <인증서 파일명>
    2. ex) # cat cert.crt
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIID7TCCAtWgAwIBAgIJAJRKKwYSJLVeMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMIGMMQswCQYD
      VQQGEwJLUjEOMAwGA1UECAwFU2VvdWwxEDAOBgNVBAcMB0dhbmduYW0xFTATBgNV
      BAoMDGhhbmdhZGFjLmNvbTEaMBgGA1UEAwwRYmxvZy5oYW5nYWRhYy5jb20xKDAm
      BgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWGW15ZW1haWxfYWRkcmVzc0BnbWFpbC5jb20wHhcNMTcwNzI4
      MDY1MjU3WhcNMTgwNzI4MDY1MjU3WjCBjDELMAkGA1UEBhMCS1IxDjAMBgNVBAgM
      BVNlb3VsMRAwDgYDVQQHDAdHYW5nbmFtMRUwEwYDVQQKDAxoYW5nYWRhYy5jb20x
      GjAYBgNVBAMMEWJsb2cuaGFuZ2FkYWMuY29tMSgwJgYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhlteWVt
      YWlsX2FkZHJlc3NAZ21haWwuY29tMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIB
      CgKCAQEAr1/3riDuTtBh0iWb3M+2oCSYk14z1M6w5f1aLHxQxtyuWky9/xGIcXPT
      8QQL0rRR8S4vEohGnxxHLiozz+KbWARzINqLFqQqrh8g4PK6TsmAeD8UP4v73aaV
      d5XgLQP0iS89KzycJuYeZ9lmskLQxsP3T2Cx0oYKHJC33fuzrDPe4dvRfUlHME86
      0y/XS1DWYj1t3o+SFId7caoA0sQheT6+livQJ73LwY4weKJ1pKhSf8jOU34dPRgc
      19EZE/I8zfNLzKqBQfQMpg+CYOUDKtE1pP8HuCpZjw6JOqhhbf3IsR19TffTs+4w
      EMmfu1lcbh9cBtAdXdFApLkSF5JWKwIDAQABo1AwTjAdBgNVHQ4EFgQU4gc/WOh1
      vIFT/l1IjFB+oxgPxYswHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAU4gc/WOh1vIFT/l1IjFB+oxgPxYsw
      DAYDVR0TBAUwAwEB/zANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAQEAHJyXti4KpN53I+3Vj+QE
      pHtvJWgh2OHOv+mZUB4pDlVercrMtBQNjOszv52fmibbwBWQ9UX0fPIHwESUNEvQ
      /phdIQ8sKFYF+D3JbEXfBpQKW3g2zbSNYf7j10NBBwBHfKiyjsslqOzmfBxHygwl
      uFj+ezNbfGlY6MdcE4NvYRhWbZf8YGLse+YZL+QLjtdvjjZsyfHyQ5WFK4ufJix/
      I8Fnzp6viqsce6hFMjS/WxuTzLyzyjrizved3KZuY7Hn82j6zOg3XyHAHkkeZf+Y
      yc+5/OBhab3nYoebcq8AuEPZz9LL8lN0scmmOTKQJR+oAhyM4A2cEGghD14FkzNY
      qw==
  4. 인증서 정보 보기
    1. # openssl  x509  -text  -in <인증서파일명>  -noout
    2. ex) # openssl  x509  -text  -in cert.crt  -noout
      Certificate:
      Data:
      Version: 3 (0x2)
      Serial Number:
      94:4a:2b:06:12:24:b5:5e
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
      Issuer: C=KR, ST=Seoul, L=Gangnam, O=hangadac.com, CN=blog.hangadac.com/emailAddress=myemail_address@gmail.com
      Validity
      Not Before: Jul 28 06:52:57 2017 GMT
      Not After : Jul 28 06:52:57 2018 GMT
      Subject: C=KR, ST=Seoul, L=Gangnam, O=hangadac.com, CN=blog.hangadac.com/emailAddress=myemail_address@gmail.com
      Subject Public Key Info:
      Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
      Public-Key: (2048 bit)
      Modulus:
      00:af:5f:f7:ae:20:ee:4e:d0:61:d2:25:9b:dc:cf:
      b6:a0:24:98:93:5e:33:d4:ce:b0:e5:fd:5a:2c:7c:
      50:c6:dc:ae:5a:4c:bd:ff:11:88:71:73:d3:f1:04:
      0b:d2:b4:51:f1:2e:2f:12:88:46:9f:1c:47:2e:2a:
      33:cf:e2:9b:58:04:73:20:da:8b:16:a4:2a:ae:1f:
      20:e0:f2:ba:4e:c9:80:78:3f:14:3f:8b:fb:dd:a6:
      95:77:95:e0:2d:03:f4:89:2f:3d:2b:3c:9c:26:e6:
      1e:67:d9:66:b2:42:d0:c6:c3:f7:4f:60:b1:d2:86:
      0a:1c:90:b7:dd:fb:b3:ac:33:de:e1:db:d1:7d:49:
      47:30:4f:3a:d3:2f:d7:4b:50:d6:62:3d:6d:de:8f:
      92:14:87:7b:71:aa:00:d2:c4:21:79:3e:be:96:2b:
      d0:27:bd:cb:c1:8e:30:78:a2:75:a4:a8:52:7f:c8:
      ce:53:7e:1d:3d:18:1c:d7:d1:19:13:f2:3c:cd:f3:
      4b:cc:aa:81:41:f4:0c:a6:0f:82:60:e5:03:2a:d1:
      35:a4:ff:07:b8:2a:59:8f:0e:89:3a:a8:61:6d:fd:
      c8:b1:1d:7d:4d:f7:d3:b3:ee:30:10:c9:9f:bb:59:
      5c:6e:1f:5c:06:d0:1d:5d:d1:40:a4:b9:12:17:92:
      56:2b
      Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
      X509v3 extensions:
      X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
      E2:07:3F:58:E8:75:BC:81:53:FE:5D:48:8C:50:7E:A3:18:0F:C5:8B
      X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
      keyid:E2:07:3F:58:E8:75:BC:81:53:FE:5D:48:8C:50:7E:A3:18:0F:C5:8BX509v3 Basic Constraints:
      CA:TRUE
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
      1c:9c:97:b6:2e:0a:a4:de:77:23:ed:d5:8f:e4:04:a4:7b:6f:
      25:68:21:d8:e1:ce:bf:e9:99:50:1e:29:0e:55:5e:ad:ca:cc:
      b4:14:0d:8c:eb:33:bf:9d:9f:9a:26:db:c0:15:90:f5:45:f4:
      7c:f2:07:c0:44:94:34:4b:d0:fe:98:5d:21:0f:2c:28:56:05:
      f8:3d:c9:6c:45:df:06:94:0a:5b:78:36:cd:b4:8d:61:fe:e3:
      d7:43:41:07:00:47:7c:a8:b2:8e:cb:25:a8:ec:e6:7c:1c:47:
      ca:0c:25:b8:58:fe:7b:33:5b:7c:69:58:e8:c7:5c:13:83:6f:
      61:18:56:6d:97:fc:60:62:ec:7b:e6:19:2f:e4:0b:8e:d7:6f:
      8e:36:6c:c9:f1:f2:43:95:85:2b:8b:9f:26:2c:7f:23:c1:67:
      ce:9e:af:8a:ab:1c:7b:a8:45:32:34:bf:5b:1b:93:cc:bc:b3:
      ca:3a:e2:ce:f7:9d:dc:a6:6e:63:b1:e7:f3:68:fa:cc:e8:37:
      5f:21:c0:1e:49:1e:65:ff:98:c9:cf:b9:fc:e0:61:69:bd:e7:
      62:87:9b:72:af:00:b8:43:d9:cf:d2:cb:f2:53:74:b1:c9:a6:
      39:32:90:25:1f:a8:02:1c:8c:e0:0d:9c:10:68:21:0f:5e:05:
      93:33:58:ab

공인인증서 만들기

  1. 각 CA (Certificate Authority) 별로 가이드를 제공함
  2. 추후 공짜 공인인증서 발급을 Letsencrypt를 통해 하겠음
    1. 참고로 이곳 hangadac.com도 Letsencrypt를 통해 공인인증서 발급 받았음

인증서 포맷 변경하기

  1. PEM -> DER 변환
    1. # openssl  x509  -inform  PEM  -in <PEM 인증서>  -outform DER  -out <결과 DER 인증서>
  2. DER -> PEM 변환
    1. # openssl  x509  -inform  DER  -in <DER 인증서>  -outform PEM  -out <결과 PEM 인증서>
  3. PEM -> PKCS#12(PFX) 변환
    1. # openssl  pkcs12  -export    -inkey  <개인키>  -in <PEM 인증서>  -out  <pfx 인증서>
  4. PKCS#12 (PFX) -> PEM 변환
    1. # openssl  pkcs12  -in <pfx 인증서>  -out  <PEM 인증서>  -nodes
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